The NeuroDevices Program is centered on experimentation and design that spans cellular, using in vitro microfabrication and microfluidic methods, to in vivo models in awake behaving animals. The program is founded upon microfluidics, like the development of integrated droplet-based microfluidic systems for performing bioassays in a high throughput manner. We have also developed a neuro chip using micro- and nanotechnologies to culture neurons in a compartmentalized platform for probing the neuronal properties.This laboratory is also developing a viral rodent model for optogenetic studies as well as small devices for optogenetic cortical stimulation in awake-behaving rodents. Optogenetics represent a profound advance in the methods in neurosciences, to address and target/control neurons with light, both exciting and inhibiting neurons in brain. Targeted control requires delivery of light to surface and deep regions, and to do the studies in awake, behaving animals (for example to alter their behavior) will require novel technologies and testing these in the small animal neurophysiology laboratory.